Friday, July 19, 2019

Malaria :: essays papers

Malaria Malaria is a potentially fatal illness of tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is caused by a parasite which is transmitted to human beings bitten by infected mosquitoes. The disease is widespread in Africa, and over one million people die of malaria every year on the continent. WHICH AREAS HARBOUR MALARIA? Within South Africa's borders the disease is encountered mainly in northern and eastern Mpumalanga, northern Kwa-Zulu Natal, and the border areas of the Northern and North West provinces. Considering South Africa's neighbours, malaria is also considered to be a threat to travellers visiting the lower lying areas of Swaziland, while it is encountered throughout Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and much of Botswana. Northern Namibia is also a malarious area. Within South Africa's borders, malaria transmission is at its highest during the warmer and wetter months of November through to April. From May through to October the risks of acquiring malaria are reduced. For a full size map and a list of game parks follow this link.(368K) HOW TO AVOID MALARIA Prevention of malaria relies upon adopting personal protection measures designed to reduce the chances of attracting a mosquito bite, and the use of appropriate anti-malarial medication. Both personal protection methods and anti-malarial medication are important, and neither should be neglected at the expense of the other. PERSONAL PROTECTION MEASURES Personal protection measures against mosquito bites include the use of an appropriate insect repellent containing di-ethyl toluamide (also known as DEET), the wearing clothing to conceal as much of the body as practical, sleeping under mosquito nets, and the spraying of sleeping quarters at night with a suitable pyrethroid containing insecticide, or the burning of an insecticide laden coil. If at all possible avoid being outdoors at night, when malaria carrying mosquitoes are more likely to bite. ANTI-MALARIA TABLETS (PROPHYLAXIS) There are a number of different types of anti-malaria tablets available. The exact choice of which to use depends both upon the particular area being visited, and the traveller's own medical history. Within South Africa's borders either a combination of chloroquine with proguanil, or Mefloquine (Mefliam) alone are the commonly used anti-malaria tablets. Chloroquine and proguanil are available without a doctor's prescription. Mefloquine (Mefliam) can only be obtained with a doctor's prescription. Because of the emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of malaria in South Africa, chloroquine should not be taken alone but should always be combined with proguanil. The adult dosage is two chloroquine tablets per week, starting one week before entering the malarious area. Proguanil may be started twenty-four hours before entering the malarious area, and two tablets must be taken every day. Both chloroquine and proguanil should be taken for four weeks after departing the malarious area, and both are best taken at

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